Chemistry of carbon dating

Here is an outrageous thought: All the matter around you is made of atoms, and all atoms are made of only three types of subatomic particle, protons, electrons, and neutrons. Even more outrageous is the shape of the atoms with the three subatomic particles.

Furthermore, all protons are exactly the same, all neutrons are exactly the same, and all electrons are exactly the same. The neutrons and protons are in the center of the atom in a nucleus.

Enter Ernest Rutherford, and his Gold Foil Experiments.

Furthermore, if electrons are exceedingly small, what makes up the mass of the atom itself?These developments led to the modern day structure of the atom. The atomic mass unit (amu) is based upon the standard of a carbon-12 atom, and states that 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom is one amu.Namely, a nucleus containing protons/neutrons representing the bulk of the atoms mass with electrons orbiting around the center is the modern day representation of the atom. Carbon: C All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons but can have different numbers of neutrons, leading to different atomic masses. With atomic mass and isotopes affecting the mass of the atom, the next portion deals with the charge of the atom.The rebounding nature of these few alpha atoms implied that perhaps the negatively charged portions were not part of the nucleus itself and that the center contained a positive portion with substantial mass.Electrons, being so very small, could not have reflected the bulky alpha particles thus there must a large portion in the center having substantial mass with electrons revolving around this center.

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